Myocardial ischemia remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful form of endogenous protection against myocardial infarction. We studied alterations in KATP channels surface density as a potential mechanism of the protection of IPC. Using cardiac-specific knockout of Kir6.2 subunits, we demonstrated an essential role for sarcolemmal KATP channels in the infarct-limiting effect of IPC in the mouse heart. With biochemical membrane fractionation, we demonstrated that sarcolemmal KATP channel subunits are distributed both to the sarcolemma and intracellular endosomal compartments. Global ischemia causes a loss of sarcolemmal KATP channel subunit distribution and internalization to endosomal compartments. Ischemia-induced internalization of KATP channels was prevented by CaMKII inhibition. KATP channel subcellular redistribution was also observed with immunohistochemistry. Ischemic preconditioning before the index ischemia reduced not only the infarct size but also prevented KATP channel internalization. Furthermore, not only did adenosine mimic IPC by preventing infarct size, but it also prevented ischemia-induced KATP channel internalization via a PKC-mediated pathway. We show that preventing endocytosis with dynasore reduced both KATP channel internalization and strongly mitigated infarct development. Our data demonstrate that plasticity of KATP channel surface expression must be considered as a potentially important mechanism of the protective effects of IPC and adenosine.
- KATP channels
- endocytic recycling
- ischemic preconditioning
- Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society
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