In this Issue

February 2016; volume 310, issue 3

Reviews

CALL FOR PAPERS | Exercise Training in Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Outcomes

CALL FOR PAPERS | Quantitative Analyses of Coronary Vascular and Cardiac Mechanics in Health and Disease

  • Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy
    Tada Yipintsoi, Keith Kroll, James B. Bassingthwaighte

    Fractal measures showed self-similarity in coronary branching. New: Local myocardial blood flows are correlated with near neighbors in two different patterns with similar fractal dimension: pattern 1, when metabolically driven, vasomotion persists; pattern 2, after adenosine stops vasomotion, vasodilated structure dominates.

CALL FOR PAPERS | Small Vessels–Big Problems: Novel Insights into Microvascular Mechanisms of Diseases

CALL FOR PAPERS | Cardiovascular Mitochondria and Redox Control in Health and Disease

  • Activation of mitochondrial calpain and increased cardiac injury: beyond AIF release
    Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, Edward J. Lesnefsky, Qun Chen

    Activation of mitochondrial calpain within intermembrane space cleaves apoptotic-inducing factor. In the present study, activation of mitochondrial calpain sensitizes mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, impairs complex I activity, and decreases pyruvate dehydrogenase content. Thus activation of mitochondrial calpain not only cleaves apoptotic-inducing factor, but also damages metabolic enzymes in the matrix.

Vascular Biology and Microcirculation

Muscle Mechanics and Ventricular Function

  • Septal flash and septal rebound stretch have different underlying mechanisms
    John Walmsley, Peter R. Huntjens, Frits W. Prinzen, Tammo Delhaas, Joost Lumens

    Simulations demonstrate that in left bundle-branch block, septal flash is caused by early activation of the right ventricular free wall before the left ventricular free wall, whereas septal rebound stretch requires early septal activation. Septal flash may therefore not occur if both left- and right-sided conduction delays are present.

Cardiovascular Neurohormonal Regulation

Cardiac Excitation and Contraction

  • Contribution of the late sodium current to intracellular sodium and calcium overload in rabbit ventricular myocytes treated by anemone toxin
    Dmytro Kornyeyev, Nesrine El-Bizri, Ryoko Hirakawa, Steven Nguyen, Serge Viatchenko-Karpinski, Lina Yao, Sridharan Rajamani, Luiz Belardinelli

    Direct evidence that augmentation of the late Na+ current can lead to an increase of the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) in rabbit cardiomyocytes was obtained. The contribution of prolongation of action potential to anemone toxin-induced [Na+]i accumulation was estimated. Correlation between [Na+]i and diastolic Ca2+ concentrations in cytosol was established

Integrative Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology

  • Early detection of acute transmural myocardial ischemia by the phasic systolic-diastolic changes of local tissue electrical impedance
    Esther Jorge, Gerard Amorós-Figueras, Tomás García-Sánchez, Ramón Bragós, Javier Rosell-Ferrer, Juan Cinca

    This study affords a new method to promptly recognize the presence of acute myocardial ischemia based on the measurement of the local changes in myocardial resistivity elicited during heart contraction and relaxation.

  • Organ perfusion during voluntary pulmonary hyperinflation; a magnetic resonance imaging study
    Kasper Kyhl, Ivan Drvis, Otto Barak, Tanja Mijacika, Thomas Engstrøm, Niels H. Secher, Zeljko Dujic, Ante Buca, Per Lav Madsen

    Pulmonary hyperinflation is accomplished by glossopharyngeal insufflation known to compress the heart and pulmonary vessels, increasing sympathetic activity and lowering cardiac output, but without known consequence for organ perfusion. Our results show that liver perfusion is prioritized when cardiac output decreases during glossopharyngeal insufflation.

Letters to the Editor