The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sham surgery in a minimally invasive surgical model of permanent coronary artery occlusion used to generate myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (3–6 mo old) were divided into five groups: day (D) 0 (no surgical operation), D1 Sham, D1 MI, D7 Sham, and D7 MI. A refined MI surgery technique was used to approach the coronary artery without the ribs being cut. Both sham and MI mice had the left ventricle (LV) exposed through a small incision. To test the effects of surgery alone, the suture was passed around the coronary artery but not ligated. The MI mice were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation. The mice were killed at D1 or D7 postsurgical procedure. Compared with D0 no surgery controls, the D1 and D7 sham groups exhibited no surgical mortality and similar necropsy and echocardiographic variables. Surgery alone did not induce an inflammatory cell response, as evidenced by the lack of leukocyte infiltration in the sham groups. Analysis of 165 inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix factors in sham revealed that a minor gene response was initiated but not translated to protein levels. Collagen deposition did not occur in the absence of MI. In contrast, the D1 and D7 MI groups showed the expected robust inflammatory and scar formation responses. When a minimally invasive procedure to generate MI in mice was used, the D0 (no surgical operation) control was an adequate replacement for the use of sham surgery groups.
- permanent occlusion
- LV remodeling
- animal use reduction
- animal use refinement
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