Impact of TNF on cell-specific gene programs during CSC differentiation. Real-time PCR analysis for cardiomyogenic (A) and smooth muscle and endothelial (B) gene expression in WT, TNFR1−/−, and TNFR2−/− CSCs after 28 days of CSC differentiation in the absence or presence of TNF (20 ng/ml). Results are from 3–5 independent experiments done in duplicate or triplicate. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze statistical differences within each CSC group, whereas Student's t-test was used to analyze differences specifically between −TNF and +TNF treated CSC subgroups. *P < 0.05 vs. respective undifferentiated (undiff) group; #P < 0.05 vs. respective −TNF group; $P < 0.05 vs. corresponding WT group; @P < 0.05 vs. corresponding TNFR1−/− group.