Schematic illustrating the timeline of the experimental trials, including a figure illustrating the cardio-based (C-INT) and resistance-based (R-INT) interval exercise protocols, which were performed in a random order with a sitting-control condition (CTL). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP) were measured before (Pre), immediately (0), 1, and 2 h after each experimental trial. HR, heart rate.
Flow-mediated dilation (%FMD), absolute FMD (mm), and shear rate area under the curve (SRAUC) before, immediately, 1, and 2 h (mean ± SD) after control (CTL), resistance interval exercise (R-INT), and cardio interval exercise C-INT in type 2 diabetes (T2D: A, D, and G), age-matched untrained normoglycemic (UN-NG: B, E, and H), and highly trained normoglycemic (TR-NG: C, F, and I) participants. *P < 0.05, compared with CTL.
Baseline mean (lines), antegrade, and retrograde shear rate (s−1; bars) before, immediately, 1, and 2 h after control (CTL), C-INT, and R-INT for T2D (A), UN-NG (B), and TR-NG (C) participants. *P < 0.05, compared with CTL.
Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and vascular conductance before, immediately, 1, and 2 h after CTL, C-INT, and R-INT in T2D (A and D), age-matched UN-NG (B and E), and TR-NG (C and F) participants. *P < 0.05, compared with CTL.