Mitochondrial dysfunction has a significant role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial oxidant stress has been accepted as the singular cause of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, separate from a direct effect on mtDNA integrity, diabetic-induced increases in oxidant stress alters mitochondrial topoisomerase function to propagate mtDNA mutations as a contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction. Both glucose-challenged neonatal cardiomyocytes and the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat were studied. In both the GK left ventricle (LV) and in cardiomyocytes, chronically elevated glucose presentation induced a significant increase in mtDNA damage that was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial function. TTGE analysis revealed a number of basepair substitutions in the 3' end of COX3 from GK LV mtDNA that significantly altered the protein sequence. Mitochondrial topoisomerase DNA cleavage activity in isolated mitochondria was significantly increased in the GK LV compared to Wistar controls. Both hydroxycamptothecin, a topoisomerase type 1 inhibitor, and doxorubicin, a topoisomerase type 2 inhibitor, significantly exacerbated the DNA cleavage activity of isolated mitochondrial extracts indicating the presence of multiple functional topoisomerases in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial topoisomerase function was significantly altered in the presence of H2O2 suggesting that separate from a direct effect on mtDNA, oxidant stress mediated type II diabetic induced alterations of mitochondrial topoisomerase function. These findings are significant in that the activation/inhibition state of the mitochondrial topoisomerases will have important consequences for mtDNA integrity and the well being of the diabetic myocardium.
- DNA damage
- mtDNA damage
- Copyright © 2012, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology