This work presents a mathematical model of the metabolic feedback and adrenergic feedforward control of coronary blood flow that occur during variations in the cardiac workload. It is based on the physiological observations that coronary blood flow closely follows myocardial oxygen demand, that myocardial oxygen debts are repaid, and that control oscillations occur when the system is perturbed, and so is phenomenological in nature. Using clinical data, we demonstrate that the model can provide patient-specific estimates of coronary blood flow changes between rest and exercise, requiring only the patient's heart rate and peak aortic pressure as input. The model can be used in zero-dimensional lumped parameter network studies, or as a boundary condition for three-dimensional multidomain Navier-Stokes blood flow simulations. For the first time, this model provides feedback control of the coronary vascular resistance which can be used to enhance the physiological accuracy of any haemodynamic simulation which includes both a heart model and coronary arteries. This has particular relevance to patient-specific simulation for which heart-rate and aortic pressure recordings are available. In addition to providing a simulation tool, under our assumptions, the derivation of our model shows that β-feedforward control of the coronary microvascular resistance is a mathematical necessity, and that the metabolic feedback control must be dependent upon two error signals: the historical myocardial oxygen debt, and the instantaneous myocardial oxygen deficit.
- Coronary Flow
- Mathematical Model
- Metabolic Control
- Autonomic Control
- Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology