Homeostatic control of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation is critical for contractile activity and regulation of blood flow. Recently, we reported that pre-contracted blood vessels are relaxed and the phenotype of VSMC is regulated from a synthetic to contractile state by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) inhibition. In the current study, we investigated whether the increase in the expression of VSMC contractile proteins by inhibition and knockdown of G6PD is mediated through a protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent pathway and whether it regulates blood pressure. We found that the expression of VSMC-restricted contractile proteins, myocardin (MYOCD), and miR-1 and miR-143 are increased by G6PD inhibition or knockdown. Importantly, RNA-sequence analysis of aortic tissue from G6PD-deficient mice revealed uniform increases in VSMC-restricted genes, particularly those regulated by the MYOCD-serum response factor (SRF) switch. Conversely, expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is decreased by G6PD inhibition. Interestingly, the G6PD inhibition-induced expression of miR-1 and contractile proteins was blocked by Rp-β-phenyl-1,N2-etheno-8-bromo-guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, a PKG inhibitor. On the other hand, MYOCD and miR-143 levels are increased by G6PD inhibition through a PKG-independent manner. Furthermore, blood pressure was lower in the G6PD-deficient as compared to wild-type mice. Therefore, our results suggest that the expression of VSMC contractile proteins induced by G6PD inhibition occurs via PKG1α-dependent and -independent pathways.
- Vascular Smooth Muscle cell
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology