L5-LDL, the most electronegative LDL associated with major cardiovascular risks, significantly rises in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The inflammatory nature of atherosclerotic vascular diseases has prompted us to investigate whether L5-LDL induces the production of inflammatory cytokines, especially vascular ischemia-related interleukin (IL)-1β in the pathogenesis of STEMI. Clinical data showed that plasma levels of L5-LDL and IL-1β were higher in the STEMI patients than in the controls (p < 0.05). In THP-1 derived human macrophages, L5-LDL significantly increased the levels of both IL-1β and cleaved caspase-1, indicating the activation of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes by L5-LDL. Knockdown of NLRP3 and its adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) resulted in decreased L5-LDL-induced IL-1β. Furthermore, knockdown of the lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) in THP-1 cells attenuated L5-LDL-induced activation of NF-κB and caspase-1, leading to subsequent inhibition of IL-1β in macrophages. Furthermore, blockade LOX-1 with neutralizing antibody also inhibited L5-LDL-induced IL-1β in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived macrophages. In conclusion, L5-LDL induces IL-1β production in macrophages by activation of NF-κB and caspase-1 through the LOX-1 dependent pathway. This study represents the evidence linking L5-LDL and the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in STEMI, and identifies L5-LDL as a novel therapeutic target in acute myocardial infarction.
- acute myocardial infarction
- electronegative LDL
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology