Table 1.

Subject demographics and clinical variables

AttributeNumber or Mean ± SDMin–Max
Gender12 male, 1 female
Age, yr56.6±2.732–73
Preexisting diagnosis of hypertension1
Preexisting diagnosis of diabetes1
Measured VariablesMean±SDRange (Min–Max)
EF, %67.7±14.841.0–84.0
PLV max, mmHg144±23107–182
LVEDP, mmHg17.5±6.27.9–31.0
PLVmin, mmHg8.26±4.671.88–20.29
PAomax, mmHg146±24107–183
Pes, mmHg119±2392–173
PAomin, mmHg77.3±10.354.6–96.5
dPLV/dt+, mmHg/s1,360±3001,030–1,920
dPLV/dt, mmHg/s−1,690±310−2,250 to 1,120
dPAo/dt+, mmHg/s739±248535–1,310
dPAo/dt, mmHg/s−661±193−976 to −392
τ, ms57.8±22.732.6–105
κ, ms366±126245–727
SV, ml133±2985–174
k, s−2184±5198–265
Derived VariablesMean±SDRange (Min–Max)
SW, ml × mmHg14,800±4,0009,800–27,800
Ea, mmHg/ml0.945±0.3100.579–1.520
KLV+, s−2412±133222–713
KLV, s−2631±157349–879
KAo+, s−2552±266220–1,070
KAo, s−2422±123245–690
  • EF, ejection fraction; PLV max, maximum pressure; LVEDP, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure; PLV min, minimum LV pressure; PAo max, maximum aortic pressure; Pes, end-systolic pressure; PAo min, minimum aortic pressure; dPLV/dt+, maximum time derivative of LV pressure; dPLV/dt, minimum time derivative of LV pressure; dPAo/dt+, maximum time derivative of aortic pressure; dPAo/dt, minimum time derivative of aortic pressure; τ, time constant of isovolumic relaxation; κ, time constant of relaxation in the vasculature related to the windkessel; k, Doppler E wave-derived stiffness; SV, stroke volume; SW, stroke work; Ea, windkessel metric (effective arterial elastance); KLV+, phase plane-derived stiffness of the LV during systole (isovolumic contraction); KLV, phase plane-derived stiffness of the LV during diastole (isovolumic relaxation); KAo+ and KAo, phase-plane-derived stiffness of the aorta during initial and late ejection.