Table 2.

Conventional and PDF parameters/indexes

Parameter/IndexMAO+ Group (n = 35)MAO Group (n = 20)Intergroup Significance
EF, %71.2 (7.5)65.4 (9.1)P < 0.05
E, cm/s70.2 (15.0)66.0 (15.5)P = 0.34
AT, ms87 (13)92 (13)P = 0.13
DT, ms184 (40)205 (53)P = 0.11
VTIE, mm95 (20)100 (26)P = 0.47
A, cm/s*61.5 (13.6)74.1 (21.2)P < 0.05
VTIA, mm*47 (10)51 (17)P = 0.37
E/A*1.19 (0.31)0.97 (0.31)P < 0.05
IVRT, ms63 (16)82 (17)P < 0.001
τ, ms51 (13)67 (27)P < 0.01
LVESV, ml48 (24)61 (29)P = 0.08
LVEDP, mmHg16.8 (4.5)17.9 (5.4)P = 0.44
LVPmin, mmHg6.3 (3.5)7.0 (4.3)P = 0.54
LVPdiast, mmHg11.0 (4.5)10.5 (4.1)P = 0.69
LVPdiast − LVPmin, mmHg4.7 (1.6)3.6 (1.2)P < 0.05
dP/dtmin, mmHg/s−1,731 (263)−1,636 (414)P = 0.30
c, g/s18.4 (5.9)27.3 (10.4)P < 0.001
k, g/s2204 (38)225 (69)P = 0.15
xo, cm10.5 (2.9)11.7 (3.4)P = 0.17
kxo, dyn2,100 (660)2,590 (1,000)P < 0.05
1/2kxo2, erg11,700 (7,100)16,100 (10,300)P = 0.07
β, s−2−445 (254)−54 (542)P < 0.001
  • Values are means (SD). EF, ejection fraction; E and A, peak amplitude of E and A wave, respectively; AT and DT, acceleration and deceleration time of E wave, respectively; VTIE and VTIA, velocity-time integral of E and A wave, respectively; IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time; τ, time constant of isovolumic relaxation; LVESV, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume; LVEDP, LV end-diastolic pressure; LVPmin, minimum LV pressure; LVPdiast, diastolic LV pressure; dP/dtmin, peak negative rate of pressure decline during isovolumic relaxation; c, damping constant; k, spring constant; xo, initial displacement of spring before release; β, effect of stiffness vs. relaxation.

  • * E and A waves were merged in 3 of the subjects without annular oscillations, precluding determination of A, E/A, and VTIA for these subjects.

  • Technical difficulties during data acquisition precluded determination of LVESV, LVPmin, LVPdiast, and LVPdiast − LVPmin in 1 and τ and dP/dtmin in 2 of the subjects without annular oscillations, respectively. Bold type indicates significance.